Answer From Daniel K. Depression ranges in seriousness from mild, temporary episodes of sadness to severe, persistent depression. Clinical depression is the more-severe form of depression, also known as major depression or major depressive disorder. To diagnose clinical depression, many doctors use the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5published by the American Psychiatric Association.
Signs and symptoms An lithograph of a woman diagnosed with depression Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred.
These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinationsusually unpleasant. Insomnia is common among the depressed. In the typical pattern, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep. They may be described as clingy, demanding, dependent, or insecure.
The —92 National Comorbidity Survey US reports that half of those with major depression also have lifetime anxiety and its associated disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.
Depression and pain often co-occur. The diagnosis of depression is often delayed or missed, and the outcome can worsen if the depression is noticed but completely misunderstood.
People with major depression are less likely to follow medical recommendations for treating and preventing cardiovascular disorderswhich further increases their risk of medical complications. The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role in causing depression.
The preexisting vulnerability can be either genetic  implying an interaction between nature and nurtureor schematicresulting from views of the world learned in childhood.
Childhood trauma also correlates with severity of depression, lack of response to treatment and length of illness. However, some are more susceptible to developing mental illness such as depression after trauma, and various genes have been suggested to control susceptibility.
However, since the s, results have been inconsistent, with three recent reviews finding an effect and two finding none. A study found 44 areas within the chromosomes that were linked to MDD.
Therapies associated with depression include interferonsbeta-blockersisotretinoincontraceptives cardiac agents, anticonvulsantsantimigraine drugsantipsychoticsand hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.
Biology of depression and Epigenetics of depression The pathophysiology of depression is not yet understood, but the current theories center around monoaminergic systems, the circadian rhythmimmunological dysfunction, HPA axis dysfunction and structural or functional abnormalities of emotional circuits.
The monoamine theory, derived from the efficacy of monoaminergic drugs in treating depression, was the dominant theory until recently.
The theory postulates that insufficient activity of monoamine neurotransmitters is the primary cause of depression. Evidence for the monoamine theory comes from multiple areas. Firstly, acute depletion of tryptophana necessary precursor of serotonina monoamine, can cause depression in those in remission or relatives of depressed patients; this suggests that decreased serotonergic neurotransmission is important in depression.
Third, decreased size of the locus coeruleusdecreased activity of tyrosine hydroxylaseincreased density of alpha-2 adrenergic receptorand evidence from rat models suggest decreased adrenergic neurotransmission in depression. Further countering the monoamine hypothesis is the fact that rats with lesions of the dorsal raphe are not more depressive that controls, the finding of increased jugular 5-HIAA in depressed patients that normalized with SSRI treatment, and the preference for carbohydrates in depressed patients.
The first model proposed is the "Limbic Cortical Model", which involves hyperactivity of the ventral paralimbic regions and hypoactivity of frontal regulatory regions in emotional processing.
Rating scales for depression A diagnostic assessment may be conducted by a suitably trained general practitioneror by a psychiatrist or psychologist who records the person's current circumstances, biographical history, current symptoms, and family history.
The broad clinical aim is to formulate the relevant biological, psychological, and social factors that may be impacting on the individual's mood.It’s common for people to have other medical or mental health problems along with depression, such as anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, .
DEPRESSION. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is the most common screening tool to identify depression. It is available in Spanish, as well as in a modified version for adolescents.; The MacArthur Foundation Initiative on Depression and Primary Care has created a Depression Tool kit is intended to help primary care clinicians recognize and manage depression.
Overview. Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems.
INTRODUCTION — Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition characterized by airflow limitation .It affects more than 5 percent of the population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality .It is the third-ranked cause of death in the United States, killing more than , individuals each year .
Medical Definition of Clinical depression Clinical depression: Depressed mood that meets the DSM-IV criteria for a depressive disorder. The term clinical depression is commonly used to describe depression that is a type of mental illness 'not a normal, temporary mood caused by life events or grieving.
The ILAE commissioned a Task Force to formulate an operational definition of epilepsy for purposes of clinical diagnosis. This article summarizes the recommendations of the Task Force, including appended notes and case examples explaining the reasons for these .