Read more For The Marketing in a Global Context program is designed for experienced managers and business leaders who need to understand and interpret financial information in order to manage across functions in a global context. It is also relevant for experts and specialists who aspire to build competencies and confidence in making strategic decisions. Consult us Contents and Schedule The main contents of the module are strategy, the global business environment, globalization, competitiveness, marketing strategy and management, differing customer expectations, partnerships, digitized marketing and marketing metrics. Particular attention is paid to three topics:
Introduction The concept of strategy has been borrowed from the military and adapted for use in business. A review of what noted writers about business strategy have to say suggests that adopting the concept was easy because the adaptation required has been modest.
In business, as in the military, strategy bridges the gap between policy and tactics. Together, strategy and tactics bridge the gap between ends and means Figure 1.
This paper reviews various definitions of strategy for the purpose of clarifying the concept and placing it in context. The author's aim is to make the concepts of policy, strategy, tactics, ends, and means more useful to those who concern themselves with these matters.
In this sense, strategy refers to the deployment of troops. Once the enemy has been engaged, attention shifts to tactics. Here, the employment of troops is central. Substitute "resources" for troops and the transfer of the concept to the business world begins to take form.
Given the centuries-old military origins of strategy, it seems sensible to begin our examination of strategy with the military view.
For that, there is no better source than B. Strategy According to B. Liddell Hart observes that Clausewitz later acknowledged these flaws and then points to what he views as a wiser definition of strategy set forth by Moltke: Concluding his review of wars, policy, strategy and tactics, Liddell Hart arrives at this short definition of strategy: That brings us to one of the people considered by many to be the father of strategic planning in the business world: Strategy According to George Steiner George Steiner, a professor of management and one of the founders of The California Management Review, is generally considered a key figure in the origins and development of strategic planning.
His book, Strategic Planning , is close to being a bible on the subject. Yet, Steiner does not bother to define strategy except in the notes at the end of his book. Steiner also points out in his notes that there is very little agreement as to the meaning of strategy in the business world.
Some of the definitions in use to which Steiner pointed include the following: Strategy is that which top management does that is of great importance to the organization.
Strategy refers to basic directional decisions, that is, to purposes and missions. Strategy consists of the important actions necessary to realize these directions. Strategy answers the question: What should the organization be doing?
What are the ends we seek and how should we achieve them? Steiner was writing inat roughly the mid-point of the rise of strategic planning. Perhaps the confusion surrounding strategy contributed to the demise of strategic planning in the late s.
The rise and subsequent fall of strategic planning brings us to Henry Mintzberg. Strategy According to Henry Mintzberg Henry Mintzberg, in his book, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning , points out that people use "strategy" in several different ways, the most common being these four: Strategy is a plan, a "how," a means of getting from here to there.
Strategy is a pattern in actions over time; for example, a company that regularly markets very expensive products is using a "high end" strategy. Strategy is position; that is, it reflects decisions to offer particular products or services in particular markets.
Strategy is perspective, that is, vision and direction. Mintzberg argues that strategy emerges over time as intentions collide with and accommodate a changing reality.
Thus, one might start with a perspective and conclude that it calls for a certain position, which is to be achieved by way of a carefully crafted plan, with the eventual outcome and strategy reflected in a pattern evident in decisions and actions over time.
This pattern in decisions and actions defines what Mintzberg called "realized" or emergent strategy. Andrews also draws a distinction between "corporate strategy," which determines the businesses in which a company will compete, and "business strategy," which defines the basis of competition for a given business.
Thus, he also anticipated "position" as a form of strategy. Strategy as the basis for competition brings us to another Harvard Business School professor, Michael Porter, the undisputed guru of competitive strategy.
Strategy According to Michael Porter In a Harvard Business Review article  and in an earlier book , Porter argues that competitive strategy is "about being different.Global strategy, hereby defined as the way a business competes in the global market, plays a vital role in determining the performance of a business in the global market.
Introduction In , with support from the Ford Foundation, Global Americans convened a working group of high-level, former policymakers, business leaders and scholars to discuss bipartisan and cross-regional ways to build on the past two decades of inter-American relations.
If the so-called strategy does not seek to push those boundaries, the strategy in all practicality is probably just a product roadmap of business extensions, not an innovation strategy. Third, the process of developing the strategy needs to be open.
The Global Cement Industry and Cemex’s Penetration Strategy into International Markets My report argues that demand and capacity creation in developing economies is a major driver in the global .
What is Strategic Planning? Strategic planning is an organizational management activity that is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, strengthen operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working toward common goals, establish agreement around intended outcomes/results, and assess and adjust the organization's direction in response to a changing environment.
MYP Global Contexts. Possible explorations to global perspectives. civilizations and social pilgrimage, migration, displacement and exchange • urban planning, strategy and infrastructure. fairness and development. What are the consequences of our common humanity?