A prominent nineteenth-century religious figure, Newman is best known for his spiritual autobiography Apologia pro Vita Suaa work hailed as a masterpiece of English prose. The Apologia, which has prompted frequent comparisons to St. Newman is additionally distinguished as one of the leading members of the Oxford Movement, a call for the reformation of the Anglican Church initiated in the s. Biographical Information Newman was the eldest of six children born to a London banker.
Francis William Newman was a younger brother. He was, however, sent shortly to Trinity CollegeOxfordwhere he studied widely. Desiring to remain in OxfordNewman then took private pupils and read for a fellowship at Orielthen "the acknowledged centre of Oxford intellectualism.
Edward Bouverie Pusey was elected a fellow of the same college in Ten days later he preached his first sermon in Holy Trinity at Over Wortonnear BanburyOxfordshire, when on a visit to his former teacher the Reverend Walter Mayers, who had been curate there since Richard Whately and Edward CoplestonProvost of Oriel, were leaders in the group of Oriel Noeticsa group of independently thinking dons with a strong belief in free debate.
He attributed much of his "mental improvement" and partial conquest of his shyness at this time to Whately. Portrait of Newman, by George Richmond In Newman returned as a tutor to Oriel, and the same year Richard Hurrell Froudedescribed by Newman as "one of the acutest, cleverest and deepest men" he ever met, was elected fellow there.
The two formed a high ideal of the tutorial office as clerical and pastoral rather than secular, which led to tensions in the college.
Newman opposed Peel on personal grounds. In Newman was a preacher at Whitehall. This choice, he later commented,[ citation needed ] produced the Oxford Movement with all its consequences. At this date, though Newman was still nominally associated with the Evangelicals, his views were gradually assuming a higher ecclesiastical tone.
George Herring considers that the death of his sister Mary in January had a major impact on Newman. In the middle part of the year he worked to read the Church Fathers thoroughly. This resulted in his being dismissed from the post on 8 March ; and three months later Newman withdrew from the Bible Societycompleting his move away from the Low Church group.
In — Newman became the "Select Preacher" before the University. In his difference with Hawkins as to the "substantially religious nature" of a college tutorship became acute and prompted his resignation.
In a letter home he described Rome as "the most wonderful place on Earth", but the Roman Catholic Church as " polytheisticdegrading and idolatrous ".
He fell dangerously ill with gastric or typhoid fever at Leonfortebut recovered, with the conviction that God still had work for him to do in England. Newman saw this as his third providential illness. In June he left Palermo for Marseille in an orange boat, which was becalmed in the Strait of Bonifacio.
Here, Newman wrote the verses " Lead, Kindly Light " which later became popular as a hymn. In the words of Richard William Churchit was "Keble who inspired, Froude who gave the impetus, and Newman who took up the work"; but the first organisation of it was due to Hugh James Roseeditor of the British Magazine, who has been styled "the Cambridge originator of the Oxford Movement".
Rose met Oxford Movement figures on a visit to Oxford looking for magazine contributors, and it was in his rectory house at Hadleigh, Suffolkthat a meeting of High Church clergy was held over 25—26 July Newman was not present, but Hurrell Froude, Arthur Philip Percevaland William Palmer had gone to visit Rose at which it was resolved to fight for "the apostolical succession and the integrity of the Prayer Book.
Its aim was to secure for the Church of England a definite basis of doctrine and discipline. In Pusey joined the movement, which, so far as concerned ritual observances, was later called "Puseyite". In the Tractarians appeared as an activist group, in united opposition to the appointment of Renn Dickson Hampden as Regius Professor of Divinity.
At this date Newman became editor of the British Critic. Just then, however, his study of monophysitism caused him to doubt whether Anglican theology was consistent with the principles of ecclesiastical authority which he had come to accept.
Newman later wrote of his reaction: For a mere sentence, the words of St Augustine struck me with a power which I never had felt from any words before. One plan that surfaced was to set up a religious community in Littlemore, outside the city of Oxford.
Though this was not altogether new, Archibald Campbell Taitwith three other senior tutors, denounced it as "suggesting and opening a way by which men might violate their solemn engagements to the university.John Henry Newman's The Idea of a University is an attempt to define a liberal arts education.
Newman describes liberal education as all around useful knowledge, "In one case it is called Useful Knowledge, in the other Liberal" ()/5(3). John Henry Newman English theologian, historian, essayist, autobiographer, novelist, editor, and poet.
The following entry presents . Anyone who reads John Henry Newman’s The Idea of a University, published in , and then ventures into the typical college classroom of today will suffer a similar case of mental whiplash.
Perhaps, though, such disorientation is inevitable.
The Idea of a University [John Henry Newman] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Cardinal John Henry Newman was a major figure in the Oxford Movement, a response by the members of the Church of England to a perceived attack by the reforming Whig administration who had already legislated a restructuring of the /5(20).
John Henry Newman English theologian, historian, essayist, autobiographer, novelist, editor, and poet. The following entry presents criticism of Newman's works from to John Henry Newman, Cong. Orat. (21 February – 11 August ) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
He was known nationally by the mids.