Are Russian Jews Descended from the Khazars? Unauthorized reproduction of this page is prohibited. This essay presents the pros and cons of the controversial "Khazar theory" of Eastern European Jewish origins and will attempt to provide a likely middle-ground solution to the question.
In fact, it is possible to estimate that translation appeared along with the development of literary language and literacy in human societies. Moreover, it is even possible Essay about translation theory estimate that in certain cases translation served as a tool of spread of literature, knowledge, human experience from one community to another.
At the time, it is necessary to emphasize that translation has not been shaped as a science since actually people did not really need to develop translation theories since it implies certain level of development and scientific views developed in the human society.
Obviously, it was possible to use translation as the means of communication but it did not contribute to high relevancy and mutual understanding from the points of view of translating material and final version of a translator.
Often it resulted in significant differences in connotation and, consequently, in the final understanding of the text which was translated. Thus, there was a paradoxical situation when translation could really help in mutual understanding of different cultures and speakers of different languages but, on the other hand, it obviously lacked theoretical background in order to make the process and results of translation comprehensible enough to the extent, that the translated version would be practically identical equivalent of original version.
Thus, the basic goal of a translator is to make his translation as close to the original version as it is possible so that the translation was perceived by the community exactly like the original version is perceived by the native speakers.
History of translation Speaking about the importance of translation, its basic goals and special demands to the translator, it is primarily necessary to briefly dwell upon the history of translation since Essay about translation theory helps better understand the problems of translation that early translators faced and still have to solve at the present moment.
First of all, it should be said that translation initially concerned religious texts since religious themes were central for early human literature at large and, consequently, it was the primary concern of early translator.
It is hardly possible to underestimate the role of translation of religious texts in the world history since they affected not only some communities but whole civilizations and its consequences are still relevant nowadays.
In order to better understand the historical significance of translation, it is possible to refer to the Buddhist monks translation of Indian sutras in the Chinese languages. As a result, such notions as filial piety were stressed Kelly Translation has played even more significant role in the development of Christianity.
It should be pointed out that the Bible was initially translated in Greek and than it was translated in Latin by probably one of the most outstanding translators in history, who later became known as Saint Jerome.
Actually, it was him who translated the Bible into Latin. His translation had been used for centuries but even this version turned to be quite contradictive when it was released. Furthermore, the period of Reformation was marked by the translation of the Bible into the local national languages.
This is why it is possible to speak about a significant role of translation that affected western civilization and practically divided it into Protestants and Catholics. In this respect it is worthy to note that the divergence between the Protestant and Catholic translation of particular words and passages of the Bible turned to be particularly important for the split of Christianity.
As a result, it is obvious that translation, especially contradictions in translation may lead to unpredictable consequences and affect many cultures that means that it is extremely important that translation was possibly closer to the original version and properly understood by people.
Translation as a part of communication and its concept It is obvious that translation played an important role in the historical development of human civilization. This is why it is extremely important to find out why it is so important and what actually makes translation such an important tool that affects human culture.
In this respect, it is extremely important to return to the concept of translation as a part of communication. This would unquestionably reveal the role of translation and its impact on human psychology, perception and even behavior.
At this point it is necessary to say that translation as an act of communication implies three dimensions: Consequently, it is of a paramount importance that a translator knows as much as possible about the original author, the actual message produced by that author and the original audience because it gets him acquainted with a particular act of communication.
As a result, he is able to better understand the message and, consequently, properly translate it and convey to the audience the translation is done for. Thus, it is extremely important that the three dimensions converged and were properly understood by a translator and conveyed to the non-original audience.
Actually, this is one of the main reasons why certain contradictions in interpretation of different religious texts mentioned above appeared. As different translators translated the original message differently because of the lack of knowledge about the original speaker, his message and audience than misunderstanding of one and the same texts by different translators and their audiences was quite natural.
Probably, it is useful to briefly return to the concept and definition of translation in order to better understand its function and role.This special issue of Breac examines “The Great Irish Famine: Global Contexts.” It brings together leading experts in the field with support from the .
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Emerson's essay Self-Reliance translated into modern English. Free translation – translator replaces a social, or cultural, reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text Literal – rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word”.
Nov 19, · Equivalence and Equivalent Effect in Translation Theory essay. Translation equivalence is an important concept of translation theory.
It is one of the main principles of Western theory of translation/5(7). Introduction to Skopos Theory Skopos Theory “Skopos theory”, meaning “the end justifies the means” (Nord, , p. ), is an approach to translation which was first put forward by Hans J.
Vermeer and developed in the late s.