In the words of this beautiful canticle, Saint Francis of Assisi reminds us that our common home is like a sister with whom we share our life and a beautiful mother who opens her arms to embrace us.
Although Bernheim did not explicitly talk about virtue, the article shows that his Lehrbuch nonetheless considers self-distanciation a matter of virtuous behavior, targeted at an aim that may not be fully realizable, but ought to be pursued with all possible vigor.
Focusing on some of its most important spokespeople, the paper shows that they start from the historicist presupposition that distance can in principle be overcome by a reconstruction of the original intentions of the framers of the Constitution.
With the help of Hans-Georg Gadamer, who explicitly based his philosophical hermeneutics on the notion of distance, this presupposition will be criticized. The paper concludes that the originalist and hermeneuticist positions do not mutually exclude each other, but can be synthesized if they are seen as different questions about the same text.
The meaning of the Constitution is therefore not given but is dependent on the direction of the questions asked by the interpreter. From this question-dependency of meaning it follows that interpretation follows the law of acoustics: The spatial metaphor of distance at work in this intuition is thought to provide the basis for the epistemological model appropriate for understanding the nature of historical knowledge.
This results in two claims: This essay discusses the pros and cons of these two claims. It argues that the two claims are indeed the best way to begin our analysis of the relationship between the past and the historical text or representation. However, we cannot afford to stop there; indeed, we must ask ourselves where the associations we have with the metaphor of temporal distance may, in the end, be misleading.
This will enable us to recognize that the notion of distance will, finally, have to yield its prerogatives to that of the notion of function. Historical writing is functionalist in the sense that the historical text is a substitute for the past discussed in it.
That is its function. The intentionalist alternative to essentialism elaborated in this article successfully clarifies and avoids many standard problems with anachronism.
Myth in History, Philosophy of History as Myth: It attempts to show that their conceptions of myth are closely related to their respective assumptions concerning the historical significance of myth and regarding the sense of history more generally.
Why Historical Distance is not a Problem. MARK BEVIR. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), This essay argues that concerns about historical distance arose along with modernist historicism, and they disappear with postfoundationalism. In contrast to these approaches, there has emerged an equally prevalent series of arguments that tend to take the unity of the state for granted, but point to powerful and more or less enduring instances of exception that both underlie and undermine the classical narrative of state sovereignty. Crisis of Modernity and Mutations of Sovereignty. As we live in the postmodern stage of capitalism, the crisis modernity has been deeply felt at the realm of sovereignty. It is because of the fact that the crisis of modernity is same time a crisis of nation state as well.
Historians often say that the micro level casts light on the macro level. In this essay, I propose and clarify six interpretive norms to guide micro-to-macro inferences. I focus on marginal groups and monsters.
These are popular cases in social and cultural histories, and yet seem to be unpromising candidates for generalization. Marginal groups are dismissed by the majority as inferior or ill-fitting; their lives seem intelligible but negligible.
Monsters, on the other hand, are somehow incomprehensible to society and treated as such. These will contest our conception of a macro claim.
Second, I identify four risks in making such inferences—and clarify how norms of coherence, challenge, restraint, connection, provocation, and contextualization can manage those risks.
My strategy is to analyze two case studies, by Richard Cobb, about a band of violent bandits and a semi-literate provincial terrorist in revolutionary France. Published inthese studies show Cobb to be an inventive and idiosyncratic historian, who created new angles for studying the micro level and complicated them with his autobiography.
Uncertainty is thus inevitable for intellectual historians. But accepting uncertainty is not enough: Then we should report our degree of certainty in our claims. When we answer empirical questions in intellectual history, we are not telling our readers what happened: For intellectual historians, then, uncertainty is subjective, as discussed by Keynes and Collingwood; the paper thus explores three differences between subjective and objective uncertainty.
Having outlined the theoretical basis of uncertainty, the paper then offers examples from actual research:Bruyneel K.
() The Third Space of Sovereignty: The Postcolonial Politics of U.S.-Indigenous Relations (Indigenous Americas). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Google Scholar: Castoriadis C. ( ) The Greek polis and the creation of democracy. In: Philosophy, Politics, Autonomy: Essays in Political Philosophy.
Constant mutations occur as in the case of Shared Sovereignty: the joint-ventures and international mixed companies.
In the human rights field is where the greatest tension occurs related to the State-National. Why Historical Distance is not a Problem.
MARK BEVIR. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), This essay argues that concerns about historical distance arose along with modernist historicism, and they disappear with postfoundationalism. An adult human male (left) and female (right) from the Akha tribe in Northern Thailand.
The modern awareness of crisis, or the modern consciousness as crisis consciousness, is the consciousness that, latently or overtly, is critical to the world. The critique sweeps and makes everything disposable to critique, to the possibility of understanding and doing things differently.
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