Introduction Participatory research methods are geared towards planning and conducting the research process with those people whose life-world and meaningful actions are under study.
He believed Action Research went through a circular process. Action Research has several definitions, one definition is: The Action Research paradigm became very popular in educational research. It was used to improve professional practice. The practitioner may be asked by their institution to carry out Action Research on a work colleagues practice.
The practitioner may want to explore why this is happening. As a result of his findings he hopes to identify explanations for the behaviour and a plan to change teaching environment to reduce disruptive behaviour.
Some Educational Institutions believe practitioners should use Action Research as part of their continuing CPD continuing professional development. Action Research can involve a variety of qualitative methods, these can include: The practitioner may decide to use more than one method.
Con There is a risk that for the practitioner who decides to evaluate his own practice. How do you select students to participate? Would there be fear of repercussions lower grade marks etc. When writing up the report, how objective will the practitioner be when wiring the results?
What if the report is critical of their teaching style? Will the practitioner include findings that will reveal this or will this be left out of the report? If so it does raise the issue of how validated the report is. The purpose of Action Research is to allow the practitioner the opportunity for reflexive inquiry.
That a practitioner who decides to use this research method has to be prepared to critically analyse and evaluate their practice if they want to make changes and improve.
They most be prepared to take action as a result of the findings. Ethical Dilemma For the practitioner who has been asked by either the work colleague or institution to evaluate the practice of another work colleague. There is risk that working relationships can be harmed.
Consequences of research on the researched. Pressure from institution to produce report that contributes to improved practice. Action Research has come under criticism from positivists who question the validity and reliability of the results as findings are often unique to the specific research.
That if that research was carried out again with a different group results would not be the same. Considerations for Ethical Review, N. Knanloua and E Petera,C. Considerations for Ethical Review. Considerations for Ethical Review pg2. They study groups who experience social inequalities, oppression, vulnerable groups.
The purpose of the research is to allow these groups to have a voice. The research methods that PAR may use can include both quantities and qualitative methods. The researcher may use one or a combination of methods which may include: As an example where using PAR as a research method.
As a PAR researcher I may want to look at the social background of each student: Might their be expectation that they leave school at 16 and find a job! These factors may contribute to their outcome.Research methods is a broad term. While methods of data collection and data analysis represent the core of research methods, you have to address a range of additional elements within the scope of your research.
The most important elements of research methodology expected to be covered in. Commonalities and Differences: Four Types of Action Research. In order to discuss the differences and commonalities between classical action research, participatory action research, applied research, and grounded action we first need to settle on specific definitions for each.
The comparison between action research and traditional research is basically a focus on the two contrasting styles that represent the most dominant types of research used by researchers.
Traditional research focuses primarily on using quantitative methodology that is predicated upon using statistical analyses and statistics to develop a. A Guide to Ethical Issues and Action Research  JANE ZENI University of Missouri–St Louis, USA ABSTRACT Traditional ‘human subjects’ reviews may not address the ethical.
Action research " is the production of knowledge which guides practice, with changes of a given reality, which takes place as part of the research process ".Oquist, action research is widely used in education, especially by teachers who use it to improve their action and research leading to social action”; remedying the failure of traditional research .