Between the known and unknown Excerpt from: Treatise on Infinite Series by Jacob Bernoulli Even as the finite encloses an infinite series And in the unlimited limits appear, So the soul of immensity dwells in minutia And in narrowest limits no limits inhere. What joy to discern the minute in infinity! The vast to perceive in the small, what divinity!
General considerations Significance of Indian philosophies in the history of philosophy In relation to Western philosophical thought, Indian philosophy offers both surprising points of affinity and illuminating differences. The differences highlight certain fundamentally new questions that the Indian philosophers asked.
The similarities reveal that, even when philosophers in India and the West were grappling with the same problems and sometimes even suggesting similar theories, Indian thinkers were advancing novel formulations and argumentations.
Problems that the Indian philosophers raised for consideration, but that their Western counterparts never did, include such matters as the origin utpatti and apprehension jnapti of truth pramanya. Problems that the Indian philosophers for the most part ignored but that helped shape Western philosophy include the question of whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason and distinctions such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments or between contingent and necessary truths.
Indian thought, therefore, provides the historian of Western philosophy with a point of view that may supplement that gained from Western thought. A study of Indian thought, then, reveals certain inadequacies of Western philosophical thought and makes clear that some concepts and distinctions may not be as inevitable as they may otherwise seem.
In a similar manner, knowledge of Western thought gained by Indian philosophers has also been advantageous to them. Vedic hymns, Hindu scriptures dating from the 2nd millennium bce, are the oldest extant record from India of the process by which the human mind makes its gods and of the deep psychological processes of mythmaking leading to profound cosmological concepts.
The Upanishads speculative philosophical texts contain one of the first conceptions of a universal, all-pervading, spiritual reality leading to a radical monism absolute nondualism, or the essential unity of matter and spirit.
The Upanishads also contain early speculations by Indian philosophers about nature, life, mind, and the human bodynot to speak of ethics and social philosophy. General characteristics of Indian philosophy Common concerns The various Indian philosophies contain such a diversity of views, theories, and systems that it is almost impossible to single out characteristics that are common to all of them.
Acceptance of the authority of the Veda s characterizes all the orthodox astika systems—but not the unorthodox nastika systems, such as Charvaka radical materialismBuddhism, and Jainism.
Moreover, even when philosophers professed allegiance to the Vedas, their allegiance did little to fetter the freedom of their speculative ventures.
Thus, the Vedas could be cited to corroborate a wide diversity of views; they were used by the Vaisheshika thinkers i. In most Indian philosophical systems, the acceptance of the ideal of moksha, like allegiance to the authority of the scriptures, was only remotely connected with the systematic doctrines that were being propounded.
Many epistemological, logical, and even metaphysical doctrines were debated and decided on purely rational grounds that did not directly bear upon the ideal of moksha.
The logical systems— NyayaVaisheshika, and Purva-Mimamsa—are only very remotely related. When Indian philosophers speak of intuitive knowledgethey are concerned with making room for it and demonstrating its possibility, with the help of logic—and there, as far as they are concerned, the task of philosophy ends.
Indian philosophers do not seek to justify religious faith; philosophic wisdom itself is accorded the dignity of religious truth. Theory is not subordinated to practice, but theory itself, as theory, is regarded as being supremely worthy and efficacious.
Three basic concepts form the cornerstone of Indian philosophical thought: Leaving the Charvakas aside, all Indian philosophies concern themselves with these three concepts and their interrelations, though this is not to say that they accept the objective validity of these concepts in precisely the same manner.
Of these, the concept of karma, signifying moral efficacy of human actions, seems to be the most typically Indian. The concept of atman, not altogether absent in Western thought, corresponds in a certain sense to the Western concept of a transcendental or absolute spirit self—important differences notwithstanding.
The concept of moksha as the concept of the highest ideal has likewise been one of the concerns of Western thought, especially during the Christian era, though it probably has never been as important as for the Hindu mind.
In addition to karma, the lack of two other concerns further differentiates Indian philosophical thought from Western thought in general. Since the time of the Greeks, Western thought has been concerned with mathematics and, in the Christian era, with history.The unique perspective of comparing two ﬁelds may oﬀer a clue.
The very fact that poetry and mathematics are Mathematics and Poetry 5 mathematics, is the outcome of a sleight of hand aimed at concealing what is really happening. Here, for example, is deﬁnite magic — one of the poems. Indian philosophy: Indian philosophy, the systems of thought and reflection that were developed by the civilizations of the Indian subcontinent.
They include both orthodox (astika) systems, namely, the Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva-Mimamsa (or Mimamsa), and . vol 6 pg 1.
To others, mathematics can be poetry. A small but robust genre— all it math-fueled poetry—attracts mathematicians and poets alike who find creative inspiration at the intersection. Sarah Glaz at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, declares herself first and foremost a mathematician, but admits her research in abstract algebra seeps into. [“Education by Poetry” was a talk delivered at Amherst College and subsequently revised for publication in the Amherst Graduates’ Quarterly of February Taylor challenges us: as teachers, as students -- of mathematics, of poetry -- we need to be WAKING. Roethke's poem explores the complexity of that process.
A Philosophy of Education Book 1. Introduction. These are anxious days for all who are engaged in education. We rejoiced in the fortitude, valour and devotion shown by our men in the War and recognize that these things are due to the Schools as well as to the fact that England still breeds "very valiant creatures.".
She took poetry classes at a nearby college when she could, discovered the math poetry anthology Against Infinity while doing a sabbatical project about mathematics and the arts, and started to.
Myths vs. Facts. Successful implementation of the Common Core State Standards requires parents, educators, policymakers, and other stakeholders to have the facts about what the standards are and what they are not. Standards from top-performing countries played a significant role in the development of the math and English language arts.
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